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For a force which began as an irregular, impoverished and improvised group, this is a formidable record. The modern wars of the Middle East began in , when the Syrians, Egyptians, Jordanians and Lebanese were unofficially at war with the Jewish settlers of Palestine. On the 15 May, the day afer Israel was declared a sovreign state, the Arab invasion began. These vigorous northern 'barbarians' were the destroyers of the Western Empire of Rome.
Their direct descendants were the knights and men-at-arms. In every sense, they were the creators of the modern world; it is ironic that many people know virtually nothing about them. This book explores the history, weapons and dress of the Germanics and Dacians who fought Rome two thousand years before our time. Wellington considered the British cavalry to be technically inferior to the French, although paradoxically he also said that one British squadron would be a match for two of the enemy.
His main concern was that although the British cavalry lacked neither courage nor dash, they lacked discipline, in that they invariably failed to rally and re-form once they had charged home. At Waterloo, although the cavalry generally performed superbly well, the endemic faults which Wellington had already identified were repeated more than once, resulting in the decimation of several fine regiments.
Bryan Fosten explores the history, organisation and uniforms of Wellington's Heavy Cavalry. The s were a time of growing tension for the smaller states of Eastern Europe. Since the end of the First World War they had enjoyed an independence which most of them had not known for centuries, but this was now threatened by the growing power of Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia.
Instead of combining for self defence, they were bitterly divided. The Munich crisis showed how little reliance could be placed on the Western democracies, whose power to intervene militarily in Eastern Europe was negligible. In effect this left the smaller East European states with little alternative but to become clients of either Germany or Russia. In June Communist insurgent forces commenced a guerrilla war to end British rule in Malaya. During the ensuing 12 years of conflict there were reported 'contacts' between units of the Security Forces and the Communist enemy. Eventually Malaya was made independent, and the British and their Commonwealth allies emerged victorious.
Written and illustrated by infantry veterans of the campaign, this book examines the Malayan Emergency, detailing the forces involved and the harsh jungle conditions in which they fought. The text is complete with firsthand accounts from the contributors themselves and numerous illustrations depicting the forces' uniforms. Leopoldo Galtieri made its move against the Falkland Islands. Margaret Thatcher faced an appalled and furious House of Commons to announce that Argentine armed forces had landed on British sovereign territory; had captured the men of Royal Marine detachment NP; had run up the Argentine flag at Government House; and had declared the islands and their population to be Argentine.
This absorbing text by William Fowler details the land forces that contested the Falklands War. In the early hours of the chilly late-autumn morning, April 2 , substantial forces of Argentine Marines, with heavy naval and air support, had invaded the Falkland islands, quickly and almost bloodlessly overwhelming a token garrison of Royal Marines. Art by Michael Roffe.
During the Falklands conflict, aircraft both fixed and rotary-wing were of crucial importance to both sides: in moving reinforcements quickly across the sea and over the islands, in attacking surface vessels, and in providing protection against attacks from both above and below the waves. The role of air power was thus to assist friendly surface forces in theirs. Consequently, the air arms of the two antagonists functioned in what was essentially a supporting role, but nevertheless a vital one.
Mercenaries were a common feature throughout most of Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries, and had been known far earlier. But nowhere did such a sophisticated system of hiring, payment and organisation of mercenaries develop as it did in Italy.
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The condottiere whose name came from the condotta or contract between himself and his employer was the result. Whether commander or humble trooper, the condottiere was a complete professional.
His skill has never been doubted, but his loyalty and dedication to a particular cause often has. David Nicolle provides a fascinating exploration of the condottiere; his roles, arms and equipment. Though the 'Scythian period' in the history of Eastern Europe lasted little more than years, the impression these horsemen made upon the history of their times was such that a thousand years after they had ceased to exist as a sovereign people, their heartland and the territories which they dominated far beyond it continued to be known as 'greater Scythia'.
From the very beginnings of their emergence on the world scene the Scythians took part in the greatest campaigns of their times, defeating such mighty contemporaries as Assyria, Urartu, Babylonia, Media and Persia. This highly illustrated book details their costume, weapons and the way they waged war.
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From the opening years of the 19th century, which saw the first moves towards standardisation and the beginnings of the demise of the system which allowed the colonels of regiments so much say in the equipping of their troops, through the influences of the Napoleonic Wars to the inevitable demise of the horse in military service brought about by the mechanisation prior to the Second World War, this authoritative text examines in detail the historical development of British cavalry equipment Airborne operations have often been called a vertical envelopment, and therein lies one of the best descriptions of their value.
The essence of an envelopment is to pin the enemy in place so that it can be destroyed. A strong enemy force to one's rear disrupts supplies and communications and makes one more vulnerable to an attack from the front. It also has a major psychological impact. To an aggressor the value of airborne troops, used properly, far outweighs their numerical strength.
The birth of the Ottoman state is shrouded in legend.
Whatever the truth of its origins, the Ottoman's formed an Empire which almost succeeded in bringing Christian Europe to its knees. During the last decades of the 13th century, the ambitious Osman Bey's tiny mountain state took eight frontier castles plus the Turkish town of Eskisehir.
In Osman seized Yenisehir after working up the Kara Su valley. With this as its first real capital, the Ottoman state emerged into history poised above the fertile shores of the Sea of Marmara. A total re-organisation began on 1 January with the abolition of the old regimental titles, and over the next two years an increasing number of conscript and volunteer battalions were formed. To combine the discipline and steadiness of the regular army with the revolutionary fervour of the new army, the Amalgame was decreed on 21 February; by this measure each regular battalion became the nucleus of a new Demi-Brigade.
During the Germans occupied first Greece and the former Yuogslavia, then enormous areas of European Russia. Once the front line troops had moved on the struggle continued as bands of resistance fighters waged war against the occupation forces until their final withdrawal. The term 'partisan' is associated with Communist-led bands and they were often the most fanatical defenders of the Soviet realm. However, there were also non-Communist resistance groups which were nationalist and broadly constitutionalist and as a result a complicated three-way war developed.
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This book details the guerrilla war which was waged in the various regions and the uniforms and equipment of the combatants. On 8 June, following further reinforcements, General Westmoreland authorised his troops to begin 'offensive patrolling'. The book is packed with superbly detailed black and white photographs of the forces in the field, and Mike Chappell's excellent illustrations provide key reference material for the contemporary uniforms and battledress. King John the Good of France was captured by the English at the battle of Poitiers in ; his year-old son Philip fought valiantly by his side until the bitter end, and as soon as he was in a position to do so, King John rewarded his son's courage and devotion by designating him Duke of Burgundy, a title that by chance had just become extinct.
Philip was the first of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy and this fascinating text by Nicholas Michael examines the functioning and organisation of the Burgundian armies from the beginning of his reign until the time of the last of the Valois Dukes; Charles the Bold. Much myth and fantasy surrounds the events of the Wars of the Roses: a bloody and prolonged dynastic struggle between the houses of York and Lancaster. Terence Wise's fascinating text lays bare the real story, and examines the armies, liveries and badges of the conflict.
The author's readable account provides a comprehensive guide as to who fought whom, where, when, why and for what, from the origins of the Wars to such famous battles as Tewkesbury and Bosworth. The accompanying photographs, illustrations and colour plates by Gerry Embleton clearly detail the arms, armour and standards of the time. Although light infantry tactics formed one of the cornerstones of Napoleonic warfare, their employment was by no means restricted to Light regiments.
Thus, from the early s if not before, the distinction between Light and Line infantry was largely one of costume and tradition. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume 5. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Issue Section:. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all figures. Comments 0. The number of schools using and teaching Chinese increased from in mids to , after China and Cambodia established diplomatic relations in One Chinese middle school, known as Duanhua Zhongxue , had more than 4, students.
Many of its students and teachers were closely associated with Huayun. Huayun was a loosely formed organization. The Huayun members had infiltrated many Chinese newspapers and communities in Cambodia. As for the leadership and organization of the Huayun , Guo Ming was in charge of the Huayun in Cambodia.
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He had been a Qiaodang member in South Vietnam and was assigned to operate in Cambodia in As the communist parties of the three Indochinese countries were dominated by the Vietnamese from the beginning, the Qiaodang in Indochina was, in a similar way, mostly made up of the ethnic Chinese from Vietnam, especially those from Cholon, Saigon. There were three layers within the organization of the Huayun in Cambodia. The first layer was the open activities headed by Pan Bing; the second layer was the semi-open activities headed by Tang Bingming, a teacher at Duanhua Zhongxue ; the third layer was the clandestine activities headed by Guo Ming.
The Huayun networks were extremely well-informed. According to one Huayun member Zhou Degao, the networks even detected the assassination attempt by the Kuomintang agents against Liu Shaoqi, who visited Cambodia in Zhou also claimed that the Huayun obtained advance information that Khieu Samphan and Hou Yuon were to be arrested after the rebellion broke in Samlaut in They stood aloof from the armed struggles started by the Khmer Rouge in Samlaut from The new regime closed all the Chinese schools and dismissed all the Chinese associations.
Under the instruction of the Chinese embassy that later withdrew its staff after China terminated relations with the Lon Nol regime, any Huayun member whose identity had been exposed should withdraw into the countryside and join the struggle. They could either join the Khmer Rouge or Vietnamese forces.
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In the end, hundreds of Huayun members entered the liberated zones controlled by the Khmer Rouge. But they received a lukewarm welcome from their haughty Khmer Rouge comrades. Why did you refuse the requests of establishing contact which had been made several times by the CPK Communist Party of Kampuchea two or three years ago?
As Cambodian Chinese, why did you join the anti-American struggles in the South Vietnam but not the Cambodian revolution? Because of your attitude like this, we could not understand. After the coup on 18 March , many of you entered the guerrilla zones in the countryside, what is you purpose—to take shelter or to join the anti-American struggles led by the CPK? Guo said that he was recalled to Beijing in and was instructed by the Zhongqiaowei Overseas Chinese Affairs committee of the PRC that the Huayun in Cambodia should be developed in an inconspicuous manner and not be publicized.